BOTANY AND PLANT SCIENCES

Subject abbreviation: BPSC


Faculty | Program
Undergraduate Curricula | Transfer Students | Graduate Curricula
Undergraduate Courses | Graduate Courses | Professional Courses

Elizabeth M. Lord, Ph.D., Chair
Department Office, 2132 Batchelor Hall
Graduate Student Affairs (909) 787-5621
Undergraduate Advising Center (909) 787-3579
http://cnas.ucr.edu/~bps/homepage.htm

Professors
Michael T. Clegg, Ph.D. Genetics
Charles W. Coggins, Jr., Ph.D. Plant Physiology
Darleen A. DeMason, Ph.D. Botany
Norman C. Ellstrand, Ph.D. Genetics
Arturo Gómez-Pompa, Ph.D. Botany
Anthony E. Hall, Ph.D. Plant Physiology
Robert L. Heath, Ph.D. Plant Physiology and Biophysics
Jodie S. Holt, Ph.D. Plant Physiology
Anthony H. C. Huang, Ph.D. Plant Cell and Molecular Biology
Elizabeth M. Lord, Ph.D. Botany
Carol J. Lovatt, Ph.D. Plant Physiology
Adam J. Lukaszewski, Ph.D. Genetics
Eugene A. Nothnagel, Ph.D. Plant Physiology
Mikeal L. Roose, Ph.D. Genetics
J. Giles Waines, Ph.D. Genetics

Professors Emeriti
Willard P. Bitters, Ph.D.
W.M. Dugger, Jr., Ph.D.
Lowell S. Jordan, Ph.D.
Charles K. Labanauskas, Ph.D.
Rainer W. Scora, Ph.D.
William W. Thomson, Ph.D.
Irwin P. Ting, Ph.D.

Associate Professors
Julia N. Bailey-Serres, Ph.D. Genetics
Elizabeth A. Bray, Ph.D. Plant Physiology
Timothy J. Close, Ph.D. Genetics
Monica A. Madore, Ph.D. Plant Physiology
Linda L. Walling, Ph.D. Genetics
Shizhong Xu, Ph.D. Genetics

Assistant Professor
Patricia S. Springer, Ph.D. Genetics
Zhenbiao Yang, Ph.D. Plant Biology

**
Adjunct Associate Professor
Edith B. Allen, Ph.D. Community/Restoration Ecology

Affiliated Emeritus
Junji Kumamoto, Ph.D.(Chemist Emeritus)

Cooperating Faculty
Richard J. DeBus, Ph.D. Biochemistry
Daniel R. Gallie, Ph.D. Biochemistry
Bradley C. Hyman, Ph.D. Biology
Justin K.M. Roberts, Ph.D. Biochemistry


MAJOR

The Departments of Botany and Plant Sciences, Plant Pathology, and Nematology participate in an interdepartmental program leading to either a B.A. or B.S. degree in Botany/Plant Science. In addition, these departments and others participate in the Plant Biology Track within the interdisciplinary Biological Sciences major. In this program, students earn a B.S. degree in Biological Sciences. Course requirements for the Plant Biology Track are listed under the Biological Sciences major in this catalog.

The major is designed to provide students with basic knowledge in the natural sciences and in their chosen field of specialization.

Appropriate selection of courses within the major prepares students for graduate training in a variety of fields including botany, ecology, genetics, nematology, plant breeding, plant pathology, plant physiology, and plant sciences.

These specialties can prepare students for teaching, research and other career opportunities in basic and applied botany and plant ecology; medical fields; biotechnology; agricultural extension, consultation or management; botanic garden, nursery, landscape and turfgrass management; crop production and protection; and many related botanical and agricultural industries.

Courses prerequisite to the major, courses used to satisfy major requirements, and the 16 units (for B.S. degree) related to the major must be taken for letter grades. Students may elect to take other courses on a Satisfactory/No Credit basis. Refer to the Academic Regulations section of this catalog for additional information on S/NC grading.

TRANSFER STUDENTS

Transfer students majoring in Botany and Plant Sciences should make every effort to complete the following full-year sequences:

  1. General chemistry, equivalent to CHEM 001A-CHEM 001B-CHEM 001C
  2. Organic chemistry, equivalent to CHEM 112A-CHEM 112B-CHEM 112C
  3. First-year calculus, equivalent to MATH 009A-MATH 009B-MATH 009C
  4. General biology, equivalent to BIOL 005A and BIOL 005B (and BIOL 005C, if available)
  5. General physics with laboratory (calculus-based) equivalent to PHYS 002A, PHYS 002B, PHYS 002C or PHYS 040A, PHYS 040B, PHYS 040C

DEGREE REQUIREMENTS

UNIVERSITY REQUIREMENTS

General University requirements are Universitywide requirements which all undergraduates must satisfy. See the Undergraduate Studies section for a complete listing.

COLLEGE REQUIREMENTS

Students must fulfill all breadth requirements of the College of Natural and Agricultural Sciences. See Degree Requirements under College of Natural and Agricultural Sciences in the Undergraduate Studies section of this catalog.

Some of the following requirements for the major may also fulfill some of the College's breadth requirements. Consult with a department advisor for course planning.

MAJOR REQUIREMENTS

The major requirements for the Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science degrees in Botany/Plant Science are as follows:

For the Bachelor of Arts

1.  Lower-division requirements (49 units)

2.  Upper-division requirements (56-63 units)

For the Bachelor of Science

1.  Lower-division requirements are the same as for the B.A. degree.

2.  Upper-division requirements include the requirements for the B.A. and, in addition, 16 units in upper-division courses or substantive lower-division courses in one or more fields related to the major.

PROGRAMS OF SPECIALIZATION

Individual student career goals may be achieved by selection of a program of specialization within the diverse disciplines of botany and plant science. Adjustments within these programs can be made to accommodate students' interests. Students must consult with a faculty advisor to clarify educational goals and to plan a program of study. Suggested programs of specialization within the Botany/Plant Sciences major are shown below. Students should select 16 units from among the courses listed.

1.  Plant Cellular and Molecular Biology (Genetics, Biotechnology):BCH 102, BCH 110A-BCH 110B-BCH 110C (in lieu of BCH 100), BCH 153/BIOL 153/BPSC 153, BCH 183, BCH 185/BPSC 185, BIOL 107A, BIOL 108, BIOL 109, BIOL 111, BIOL 121A/MCBL 121A, BIOL 121B/MCBL 121B, BIOL 121L/MCBL 121L, BIOL 155/BPSC 155, BPSC 135, BPSC 148, BPSC 150, CHEM 109

2.  Organismal Botany/Plant Sciences (Anatomy, Development, Morphology, Physiology, Systematics, Taxonomy):BCH 102, BCH 153/BIOL 153/BPSC 153, BCH 183, BIOL 107A, BIOL 185/BPSC 185, BPSC 135, BPSC 144, STAT 120A-STAT 120B, SWSC 102

3.  Ecology, Agriculture, and Natural Resources (Population Biology, Ecology, Evolution, Agroecology, Horticulture):ANTH 170/BPSC 170, BCH 102, BCH 183, BIOL 105, BIOL 108, BIOL 117, BIOL 118, BIOL 127/ENTM 127, BIOL 142/BPSC 122, BPSC 101, BPSC 102, BPSC 103, BPSC 146, BPSC 150, STAT 120A-STAT 120B

4.  Plant Pathology/Nematology:BIOL 120/MCBL 120/PLPA 120, BIOL 121A/MCBL 121A, BIOL 121B/MCBL 121B, BIOL 121L/MCBL 121L, BIOL 134/PLPA 134, BIOL 159/NEM 159BPSC 103, BPSC 146, BPSC 150, NEM 120

Students planning a B.A. degree should schedule the required language courses in place of a series of electives. For the B.S. degree the electives must include 16 units of upper-division or substantive lower-division courses in a field or fields related to the major.

Information about this program is available in the Biological Sciences Undergraduate Advising Center (909) 787-3579.

MINOR

The Minor in Botany/Plant Sciences allows students majoring in other departments to obtain in-depth training in Botany/Plant Sciences.

Requirements for the Minor in Botany/Plant Sciences are as follows:

1.  BIOL 130/BPSC 130 (General Botany) (4 units)

2.  One course (4 units) from the following: BIOL 132/BPSC 132 (Plant Anatomy) BIOL 138/BPSC 138 (Morphology of Vascular Plants) BIOL 143/BPSC 143 (Plant Physiology)

3.  Twelve (12) to 20 units from the following: ANTH 170/BPSC 170, BCH 153/BIOL 153/BPSC 153, BCH 185/BPSC 185, BIOL 132/BPSC 132, BIOL 138/BPSC 138, BIOL 142/BPSC 122, BIOL 143/BPSC 143, BIOL 155/BPSC 155, BPSC 101, BPSC 102, BPSC 103, BPSC 135, BPSC 144, BPSC 146, BPSC 148, BPSC 150, BPSC 190, BPSC 197, BPSC 199

Note: No more than 4 units of BPSC 190-199 may be used to fulfill this requirement. Courses used to fulfill the section 2 requirement cannot also be used to fulfill the section 3 requirement.

See Minors under the College of Natural and Agricultural Sciences in the Undergraduate Studies section of this catalog for additional information on minors.

GRADUATE PROGRAM

The Department of Botany and Plant Sciences offers programs leading to the M.S. degree in Botany or Plant Science, and to the Ph.D. degree in Botany or Botany (Plant Genetics).

Applicants who have a baccalaureate degree and who satisfy the general requirements of the University listed in the Graduate Studies section of this catalog are considered for admission to graduate status. Graduate Record Examination scores (verbal, quantitative, and analytical) must be submitted to the department for admission to the Ph.D. program; also, domestic applicants to the M.S. programs are required to submit these scores.

Regardless of the area of their major for the Baccalaureate degree, students are expected to have had, or complete soon after entering graduate school, a year course in general biology, general chemistry, organic chemistry, and physics; mathematics through integral calculus; and a course in genetics, biochemistry, and statistics. Credit from these courses does not count toward the graduate degree.

Each student should consult with the graduate advisor regarding educational goals and scheduling. When an area of specialization has been determined, a faculty advisor who will provide further counsel in outlining the student's program may be assigned.

MASTER'S DEGREE

The master's degree may be earned under Plan I (Thesis Plan) or Plan II (Comprehensive Examination Plan). Students must meet all general requirements of the Graduate Division. The detailed course program is determined by the Guidance Committee after considering the specific interests of the student. Department requirements are:

Plan I (Thesis)

1.  Three courses from Section I of either the Botany or the Plant Science M.S. list

2.  Two courses from Section II of either the Botany or Plant Science M.S. list

3.  At least 6 units from Section III of either the Botany or Plant Science M.S. list

4.  Preparation of a thesis (not more than 12 units from Section V may apply toward the degree)

If the student takes research courses from Section IV, not more than 6 units may be applied toward the degree. Students who have taken courses comparable to those in Section I during their baccalaureate training may have a portion or all of this section waived. In such instances, however, it is expected that their programs include increased units in courses from Sections II, III, and/or IV. Recommendations for waivers should specify alternative courses and should be sent to the department Educational Advisory Committee for approval.

Plan II (Comprehensive Examination)

1.  Three courses from Section I of either the Botany or Plant Science M.S. list

2.  Two courses from Section II of either the Botany or Plant Science M.S. list

3.  At least 12 units from Section III of either the Botany or Plant Science M.S. list

4.  At least 6 units from Section IV for a research project or literature review, which should be described in a report to be submitted for evaluation by the Comprehensive Examination Committee

5.  Comprehensive written and oral examinations

Students who have taken courses comparable to those in Section I during their baccalaureate training may have a portion or all of this section waived. In such instances, however, it is expected that their programs include increased units in courses from Section II and/or III. Recommendations for waivers should specify alternative courses and should be sent to the Educational Advisory Committee for approval.

Seminar Requirement. All full-time students in residence in the M.S. program must enroll in the BPSC 250 and BPSC 260 seminars during each quarter in which they are offered. Part-time students must take one BPSC 250 and one BPSC 260 seminar for every 12 units of courses. Students may enroll in an equivalent seminar course as a replacement for the BPSC 260 Seminar. All students must present at least one seminar and complete at least two quarters of BPSC 240 (or equivalent) during the master's program.

Courses available for fulfilling the requirement for the M.S. degree:

Section I--Upper-division undergraduate courses:

Botany M.S.

ANTH 170/BPSC 170, BCH 153/BIOL 153/BPSC 153, BCH 185/BPSC 185, BIOL 111, BIOL 120/MCBL 120/PLPA 120, BIOL 130/BPSC 130, BIOL 132/BPSC 132, BIOL 138/BPSC 138, BIOL 142/BPSC 122, BIOL 143/BPSC 143, BIOL 155/BPSC 155,BPSC 135, BPSC 144, BPSC 146, BPSC 148

Plant Science M.S.

BIOL 130/BPSC 130, BIOL 143/BPSC 143, BPSC 101, BPSC 102, BPSC 103, BPSC 148, BPSC 150

Section II--Graduate and upper-division undergraduate courses in related departments or programs: applicable courses will be determined by the Educational Advisory Committee and will require approval of the Graduate Advisor.

Section III--

Botany M.S.

BCH 231/BPSC 231, BIOL 232/BPSC 232, BPSC 201 (for a maximum of 2 units), BPSC 230L, BPSC 233, BPSC 236, BPSC 237, BPSC 239, BPSC 240 (only if taken in addition to the required seminar units; see seminar requirement), BPSC 243, BPSC 246

Plant Science M.S.

BCH 231/BPSC 231, BIOL 232/BPSC 232, BPSC 201 (for a maximum of 2 units), BPSC 220, BPSC 221, BPSC 222, BPSC 230L, BPSC 233, BPSC 236, BPSC 237, BPSC 239, BPSC 240 (only if taken in addition to the required seminar units; see seminar requirement), BPSC 243

Section IV--Research courses: BPSC 290 and BPSC 297.

Section V--Thesis research: BPSC 299, Thesis for Plan I.

The normative time to the M.S. degree is seven quarters.

DOCTORAL DEGREE

The student must meet the general requirements of the Graduate Division. Course requirements for each student are determined by individual guidance committees and by the Educational Advisory Committee. During the first quarter in residence, students will meet with a guidance committee to choose an area of specialization in Botany or Botany (Plant Genetics) and two minor areas. Guidance committees and students should design individual course programs which meet the specific needs of the student and the requirements of the Ph.D. program. Course programs should prepare students for the qualifying examination and dissertation research. Either prior to entering the graduate program or before advancement to candidacy, students are expected to have completed an upper-division general course in the life sciences such as molecular biology, cell biology, physiology, ecology, etc., and two upper-division or graduate courses that have a major focus on plants, e.g., general botany, plant morphology, plant physiology, plant systematics, etc. Students are required to take a minimum of three graduate-level courses relevant to the specialization. Graduate courses taken previously may be considered towards fulfilling this requirement. Students' course programs must be approved by the Educational Advisory Committee. At the time of submission of course programs to the Educational Advisory Committee, the area of specialization and two minor areas to be covered on the qualifying examination should be specified. Students may petition to change the course program, area of specialization, or minor areas at any time.

Advancement to candidacy depends upon the student passing a written and oral qualifying examination. The qualifying examination covers the student's area of specialization and two minor areas. Granting of the degree is contingent upon acceptance of the dissertation by the candidate's dissertation committee and satisfactory oral defense of the dissertation.

Seminar Requirement. All students in residence in the Ph.D. program must enroll in the BPSC 250 and 260 seminars during each quarter in which they are offered. Students may enroll in an equivalent seminar course as a replacement for the BPSC 260 seminar. Also, students must present at least one BPSC 250 seminar during the Ph.D. program in addition to the defense of the dissertation. The dissertation defense is normally presented in the BPSC 250 seminar series; however, if necessary, a special seminar may be scheduled for the defense. All students must complete at least two quarters of BPSC 240 (or approved similar equivalent that includes substantial student presentations) during the Ph.D. program.

Foreign Language. There is no foreign language requirement.

Teaching Experience. Students are required to obtain at least one quarter of teaching experience.

The normative time to the Ph.D. degree is fifteen quarters.


LOWER-DIVISION COURSES

BPSC 011. Plants and Human Affairs. (4) F

Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Prerequisite(s): none. An introduction for nonscience and non-Botany majors to the importance of plants and plant products in the shaping of human affairs and civilization. Covers the origin and practice of agriculture; the utilization of plant products; the latest agricultural advances, including genetic engineering; and the current agricultural and social issues. Plants and plant products are examined during class demonstrations and exercises. Huang

BPSC 021. Cacti and Succulents. (4) W

Lecture, two hours; laboratory, three hours; two full-day Saturday field trips. Prerequisite(s): none. All aspects of the biology of cacti and succulent plants are presented including morphology, classification, biogeography, cultivation, and their unique structural and physiological adaptations to hot, dry habitats. Laboratory consists of demonstrations, films, and field trips. DeMason

BPSC 031. Spring Wildflowers. (4) S

Lecture, three hours; laboratory, three hours; one Saturday field trip. Prerequisite(s): none. General approach to the study of vegetative and floral features of plants as a means of identification and botanical classification of major plant families in Southern California. Secondary emphasis on the field biology of flowering plants.


UPPER-DIVISION COURSES

BPSC 101. Citriculture. (4) W, Odd Years

Lecture, three hours; laboratory, three hours or occasional field trips. Prerequisite(s): BIOL 005B or consent of instructor. Responses of commercial citrus varieties to environment and cultural practices, flowering and fruiting. Citrus propagation, rootstocks, production, economics, and world acreages.

BPSC 102. Tropical and Subtropical Horticulture. (4) F, Even Years

Lecture, four hours; occasional field trips. Prerequisite(s): BIOL 130/BPSC 130 or consent of instructor. Studies of the important tropical and subtropical crops of the world, emphasizing fruits, but excluding citrus, with special reference to their botany, climatic adaptation, and culture. Waines

BPSC 103. Crop Ecology. (4) W, Odd Years

Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Prerequisite(s): upper-division standing in plant sciences or related discipline in the College of Natural and Agricultural Sciences or consent of instructor. Analysis of cropping systems with emphasis on the physics of terrestrial environments, the responses of crops to these environments, and crop adaptation, management, and improvement. Hall

BPSC 112. Systematics. (4) F

Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Prerequisite(s): BIOL 005C or equivalent. Explores the principles and philosophy of classification. Topics include phylogenetic and phenetic methods, species concepts, taxonomic characters, evolution, hierarchy of categories, and nomenclature. Cross-listed with BIOL 112 and ENTM 112.

BPSC 122. Restoration Ecology. (4) W

Lecture, three hours; two one-day field trips; three half-day field trips. Prerequisite(s): BIOL 005C, BIOL 117, CHEM 112C, STAT 020 or STAT 100A (may be taken concurrently); or consent of instructor. Biol 102 recommended. An examination of the basic ecological principles related to land restoration. Topics include enhanced succession, plant establishment, plant adaptations, ecotypes, weed colonization and competition, nutrient cycling, functions and reintroduction of soil microorganisms, restoration for wildlife, and the determination of successful restoration. Includes field trips to restored sites. Cross-listed with BIOL 142. Allen

BPSC 130. General Botany. (4) F,S

Lecture, three hours; laboratory, three hours. Prerequisite(s): BIOL 005A-BIOL 005B-BIOL 005C; BCH 100 or BCH 110A-BCH 110B-BCH 110C; MATH 009A-MATH 009B; PHYS 002A-PHYS 002B; STAT 020 or STAT 100A or equivalent; or consent of instructor. Examines plants as functional organisms. Includes a brief survey of plants and plant-like organisms. Focuses on flowering plants as a model system in which to define plants; to understand their structure, function, reproduction, and evolution; and to define their role in nature. Cross-listed with BIOL 130.

BPSC 132. Plant Anatomy. (5) F

Lecture, three hours; laboratory, six hours. Prerequisite(s): BIOL 005A and BIOL 005B, or consent of instructor. Functional and developmental aspects of plant cell, tissue, and organ structure. All aspects of the flowering plant life cycle are covered from germination to pollination and fruit and seed development. Cross-listed with BIOL 132. DeMason.

BPSC 135. Plant Cell Ultrastructure. (3) W

Lecture, three hours. Prerequisite(s): upper-division standing in Biology or Botany and Plant Sciences or related biological discipline or consent of instructor. A survey of the ultrastructure of plant cell membranes and organelles as related to physiological and developmental processes.

BPSC 138. Morphology of Vascular Plants. (4) S

Lecture, two hours; laboratory, six hours. Prerequisite(s): BIOL 005A-BIOL 005B-BIOL 005C or consent of instructor. Comparative morphology and evolution of vascular plants studied from the viewpoint of both fossil and living representatives and with a focus on the Angiosperms. Cross-listed with BIOL 138. Lord.

BPSC 143. Plant Physiology. (4) W

Lecture, three hours; laboratory, three hours. Prerequisite(s): BIOL 130/BPSC 130, CHEM 112A-CHEM 112B-CHEM 112C or equivalents; or consent of instructor. A survey of the fundamental principles of plant physiology, including photosynthesis, respiration, water relations, mineral nutrition, growth, morphogenesis, plant hormones, dormancy, and senescence. Cross-listed with BIOL 143. Madore.

BPSC 144. Biosystematics. (4) S, Even Years

Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Prerequisite(s): BIOL 005C or consent of instructor. Discussion of the nature and causes of plant variation within and among species and the experimental methods used to gather such information. Topics include the integration of data with evolutionary hypotheses to determine taxonomic and evolutionary relationships among plant species.

BPSC 146. Plant Ecology. (4) S, Odd Years

Lecture, three hours; laboratory, three hours. Prerequisite(s): BIOL 005C, BIOL 130/BPSC 130; or consent of instructor. Fundamentals of plant ecology emphasizing community ecology, environment, life histories, population dynamics, species interactions, succession, disturbance, and special topics in applied ecology. Holt

BPSC 148. Quantitative Genetics. (4) F

Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Prerequisite(s): BIOL 102; STAT 100B or STAT 120A; or consent of instructor. Examines approaches to studying the genetic basis of polygenic, metric traits. Topics include types of gene action, partitioning of variance, response to selection, and inferring the number and location of quantitative trait loci. Xu

BPSC 150. Principles of Plant Breeding. (4) W, Even Years

Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Prerequisite(s): BIOL 102; STAT 100A or STAT 120A recommended. Application of the principles of classical, quantitative, and molecular genetics to the development of improved cultivars of crop plants.

BPSC 153. Plant Biotechnology. (4) S, Odd Years

Lecture, one hour; discussion, one hour; laboratory, six hours. Prerequisite(s): BCH 110C or BIOL 107A; upper division standing; consent of instructor. A study of modern techniques in plant genome modification. Topics include nucleic acid cloning and sequencing, plant tissue culture and genetic transformation, controlled-environment plant growth, gene mapping, and germplasm collections. Also explores the history of plant biotechnology; economic, agricultural, nutritional, medicinal, and societal relevance; and regulatory issues. Cross-listed with BCH 153 and BPSC 153. Credit is awarded for only one of BCH 153/BIOL 153/BPSC153 or BIOL 109. Close

BPSC 155. Chromosomes. (4) F

Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Prerequisite(s): BIOL 102 or consent of instructor. An examination of the structure, function, and behavior of eukaryotic chromosomes. Cross-listed with BIOL 155. Lukaszewski.

BPSC 170. Ethnobotany. (4) S

Lecture, two hours; seminar, one hour; discussion, one hour. Prerequisite(s): BIOL 130/BPSC 130, or consent of instructor. Introduces students to ethnobotanical research by reviewing selected ethnobotanical studies. Topics covered by lectures include fundamental principles of ethnobotany, the search for new medicines and other products made from plants, the role of humans in plant evolution, and the impact of plants on human cultures. Discussions focus on the past and present role of humans in plant conservation and the search for sustainable management practices in agriculture and forestry. Seminars by invited guests and enrolled students present selected topics in ethnobotany. Cross-listed with ANTH 170. Gómez-Pompa

BPSC 185. Molecular Evolution. (4) S, Odd Years

Lecture, two hours; discussion, two hours. Prerequisite(s): BCH 110C or BIOL 107A; BIOL 108 recommended. Explores the evolution of genes, proteins, and genomes at the molecular level. Focuses on the processes that drive molecular evolutionary change. Attention also given to the analysis of molecular data within the framework of evolutionary theory. Cross-listed with BCH 185. Clegg, Dugaiczyk.

BPSC 190. Special Studies. (1-5) F,W,S

Library, laboratory or field work designed to meet special curricular needs. A written proposal signed by the supervising faculty member must be approved by the major advisor and the Department Vice Chair. A written report must be filed. Course is repeatable but total credit toward graduation may not exceed 6 units.

BPSC 197. Research for Undergraduates. (1-4) F,W,S

Individual research, three to twelve hours. Prerequisite(s): upper-division standing; consent of instructor. Individual research conducted under the direction of a Botany and Plant Sciences faculty member. A written proposal must be approved by the supervising faculty member and undergraduate advisor. A written report must be filed with the supervising faculty member at the end of the quarter. Course is repeatable.

BPSC 199. Senior Research. (2-4) F,W,S

Laboratory, six to twelve hours. Prerequisite(s): senior status; a GPA of 3.2 or better in upper-division courses in Botany/Plant Science and Biology; or consent of instructor. Individual research on a problem relating to Botany/Plant Science. A written proposal signed by the supervising faculty member must be approved by the major advisor and the Department Vice Chair. A written report must be filed with the supervising faculty member. Course is repeatable but total credit toward graduation may not exceed 9 units.


GRADUATE COURSES

BPSC 201 (E-Z). Methods in Plant Biology. (1-2) F,S

Laboratory, three to six hours. Prerequisite(s): consent of instructor. Theory and principles of instruments and laboratory techniques applicable to research in the plant sciences. Experiments provide experience in the use of laboratory instruments and techniques including applications and limitations.

Q. Plant Cell Protoplast Electroporation.
R. Plant Genomic Library Construction.
T. Characterization of Plant Complex Carbohydrates. Nothnagel
U. Basic Fluorescence Techniques in Plant Biology. Nothnagel
V. Plant Carbohydrate and Amino Acid Analysis.
X. Starch Gel Electrophoresis. Roose

BPSC 220. Physiology of Tree Crop Productivity. (3) F, Odd Years

Lecture, three hours. Prerequisite(s): BIOL 143/BPSC 143 or consent of instructor. Study of the physiological processes underlying crop production in fruit trees with special emphasis on the influences exerted by horticultural practices and the environment. Lovatt

BPSC 221. Advanced Plant Breeding. (4) S, Even Years

Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Prerequisite(s): BPSC 150 and either BPSC 148 or consent of instructor. Advanced treatment of plant breeding theory and practice including development and use of information on inheritance of traits; choice of breeding plans; breeding for yield, quality, disease and stress resistance; and use of biotechnology. Roose

BPSC 222. Origins of Agriculture and Crop Evolution. (3) W, Odd Years

Lecture, three hours. Prerequisite(s): BIOL 102, BIOL 130/BPSC 130; or consent of instructor. Analysis of origins of agriculture in the Near East, China, the New World, and Africa. Survey of domestication and evolution of major crop plants and animals. Waines

BPSC 230L. Cytogenetics Laboratory. (3) S, Odd Years

Laboratory, nine hours. Prerequisite(s): BIOL 155/BPSC 155 or equivalent. An advanced laboratory course in cytogenetics covering current methods of fixation, staining, and observation of chromosomes in eukaryotic organisms. Topics include methods for observation of polytene chromosomes of Drosophila, chromosome banding techniques, and in situ hybridization. Lukaszewski

BPSC 231. The Plant Genome. (4) F, Odd Years

Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Prerequisite(s): BCH 100, BIOL 107A; or BCH 110A-BCH 110B-BCH 110C; or consent of instructor. Gives students an appreciation for the structure of the plant nuclear, chloroplast, and mitochondrial genomes. Gene structure, regulation of gene expression, transposons, and methods of gene introduction are also emphasized. Cross-listed with BCH 231. Bailey-Serres, Walling.

BPSC 232. Plant Development. (4) W

Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Prerequisite(s): BCH 110C or BIOL 107A; BIOL 102; BIOL 130/BPSC 130; or consent of instructor. An examination of plant development, with emphasis on the genetic mechanism used in patterning plant form. Topics are taken from current literature and focus on molecular and cellular mechanisms. Cross-listed with BIOL 232. Springer

BPSC 233. Molecular Responses of Plants to the Environment. (4) S, Even Years

Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Prerequisite(s): BIOL 107A, BIOL 143/BPSC 143; or consent of instructor. Molecular-level responses to the environment; mechanisms of gene regulation, including those involving plant hormones; and inheritance of these responses and regulatory mechanisms will be discussed. Environmental factors discussed will include light, nutrients, abiotic and biotic stress, and herbicides. Bray, Close

BPSC 236. Plant Microtechnique. (4) W, Odd Years

Lecture, two hours; laboratory, six hours. Prerequisite(s): BIOL 132/BPSC 132. Explores the principles and practice of plant tissue preparation for light microscopic study, including standard techniques, histochemistry, enzyme cytochemistry, immunocytochemistry, autoradiography, in situ hybridization, and photomicrography. Principles of brightfield, phase contrast, polarization, fluorescence, Normarski, darkfield, and confocal microscopy also examined. DeMason

BPSC 237. Plant Cell Biology. (4) F

Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Prerequisite(s): BIOL 107A or BIOL 111 or BIOL 143/BPSC 143 or BCH 100 or their equivalents; or consent of instructor. Studies the structure, function, and dynamics of plant cell division, expansion, and specialization. Emphasis on aspects unique to plants including cytoskeletal and cell plate dynamics during cytokinesis; intracellular trafficking and wall-dynamics during expansion; and targeting to chloroplasts and vacuoles during specialization. Nothnagel, Huang.

BPSC 239. Plant Metabolism. (3) W

Lecture, three hours. Prerequisite(s): consent of instructor. Recent and important advances in plant metabolism related to organelle physiology and carbon assimilation. Madore

BPSC 240. Special Topics in Plant Biology. (2) F,W,S

Seminar, two hours. Prerequisite(s): consent of instructor. Discussion of current literature within special areas of plant science. Graded Satisfactory (S) or No Credit (NC). Course is repeatable.

BPSC 243. Environmental Plant Physiology. (4) S, Odd Years

Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Prerequisite(s): BIOL 143/BPSC 143 or BPSC 103. Analysis of theoretical and experimental aspects of plant responses to environment. Emphasis on plant-water relations, plant-temperature relations, photosynthesis, and respiration at the whole plant and plant organ levels of organization. Hall

BPSC 246. Advanced Plant Population Ecology. (4)

Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Prerequisite(s): BPSC 146, or equivalent, or consent of instructor. Advanced topics in plant population ecology; theory of island biogeography, coevolution, reproductive ecology, resource allocation, plant demography, life history strategies, the interaction of population ecology and population genetics, modeling of population dynamics. Ellstrand

BPSC 248. Statistical Analysis of Quantitative Trait Loci. (4)

Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Prerequisite(s): BPSC 148 or consent of instructor. A study of the statistical methods for identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Topics include least squares, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian methods for mapping QTLs; single-marker analysis, interval mapping, and multipoint mapping; and mapping QTLs for complex diseases. Xu

BPSC 250. Seminar in Plant Biology. (1) F,S

Seminar, one hour. Prerequisite(s): graduate standing or consent of instructor. Intensive study of selected topics in plant biology. Letter grades are assigned to students who present formal seminars; other students receive Satisfactory (S) or No Credit (NC) grades. Course is repeatable.

BPSC 252. Special Topics in Botany/Plant Science. (1) F,W,S

Seminar, one hour. Prerequisite(s): graduate standing and consent of instructor. Oral presentations and intensive small-group discussion of selected topics in the area of special competence of each staff member. Course content will emphasize recent advances in the special topic area and will vary accordingly. To be graded Satisfactory (S) or No Credit (NC). The course may be repeated.

BPSC 257. Graduate Seminar in Cell, Molecular, and Developmental Biology. (1)

Seminar, one hour. Prerequisite(s): graduate standing. Lectures by visiting scholars on current research in cell, molecular, and developmental biology. Graded Satisfactory (S) or No Credit (NC). Course is repeatable. Cross-listed with BCH 257, BIOL 257, BMSC 257, ENTM 257, ENTX 257, NEM 257, NRSC 257, and PLPA 257.

BPSC 260. Seminar in Plant Physiology, Botany, or Genetics. (1) W

Seminar, one hour. Prerequisite(s): graduate standing or consent of instructor. Lectures, discussions, and demonstrations by students, faculty, and invited scholars on selected subjects concerned with the principles of plant physiology, botany, or genetics. Graded Satisfactory (S) or No Credit (NC). Course is repeatable.

BPSC 261. Colloquium in Recombinant DNA. (1) W,S

Seminar, one hour. Prerequisite(s): graduate standing or consent of instructor. Oral reports by visiting scholars, faculty, and students on current research topics in recombinant DNA. Graded Satisfactory (S) or No Credit (NC).

BPSC 280. Maya Subsistence and Biodiversity. (2-12)

Lecture, ten hours per quarter; discussion, ten hours per quarter. Prerequisite(s): graduate standing or consent of instructor. A field course based on an interdisciplinary research program on the biodiversity of the Maya region of Mexico and the subsistence systems of the present and ancient Maya people. Includes independent research, lecture, readings, discussions, and visits to different field projects, research institutions, protected areas, and agroecosystems in the region. There is a fee associated with this course; fellowships may be available. See instructor for details. Graded Satisfactory (S) or No Credit (NC).

BPSC 290. Directed Studies. (1-6) F,W,S

Prerequisite(s): consent of instructor. Library, laboratory or field studies in those areas of plant biology not covered by formal course work. This course is designed to meet special or unexpected curricular needs. The program of study will be determined by and conducted under a professor who will judge the quality of the work completed. Course to be graded Satisfactory (S) or No Credit (NC). Course is repeatable.

BPSC 291. Individual Study in Coordinated Areas. (1-6) F,W,S

Prerequisite(s): graduate standing. A program of study designed to advise and assist candidates who are preparing for examinations. Up to 6 units may be taken prior to the master's degree. Up to 12 units may be taken prior to advancement to candidacy for the Ph.D. Graded Satisfactory (S) or No Credit (NC). Course is repeatable upon recommendation of the instructor.

BPSC 292. Concurrent and Advanced Studies in Botany and Plant Sciences. (1-4)

Outside research, three to twelve hours. Prerequisite(s): consent of instructor. Elected concurrently with an appropriate undergraduate course, but on an individual basis. Devoted to one or more graduate projects based on research and criticism related to the course. Faculty guidance and evaluation is provided throughout the quarter. Course is repeatable.

BPSC 297. Directed Research. (1-6) F,W,S

Outside research, three to eighteen hours. Prerequisite(s): graduate standing or consent of instructor. Individual research conducted under the direction of a Botany and Plant Sciences faculty member. Graded Satisfactory (S) or No Credit (NC). Course is repeatable.

BPSC 299. Research for Thesis or Dissertation. (1-12) F,W,S

Graded Satisfactory (S) or No Credit (NC). Course is repeatable.


PROFESSIONAL COURSE

BPSC 302. Teaching Practicum. (1-4) F,W,S

Prerequisite(s): graduate standing and appointment as Teaching Assistant. Supervised teaching of Botany/Plant Science courses including laboratory and/or discussion sections. Graded Satisfactory (S) or No Credit (NC). Course is repeatable for credit but units not applicable toward degree unit requirements.